Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Education should not compete with national defence, trade deficit, drugs or AIDS. Instead, think of it as a solution to those problems, stated David Kearns, Chairman of the giant Xerox Corporation, a few years ago. A good school or college should have a well-stocked library which is a treasurehouse of knowledge. Unfortunately, barring exceptions, libraries are places where some unwanted books gather dust. There is no time, either for the teachers or the students, to make use of these books which could enlarge their horizon. No wonder then that the school or college management invests little in libraries. Moreover, the staff which is supposed to maintain these are not trained in library management, but there is only an ad hoc arrangement to make some reluctant teacher or staff in-charge, as a mere formality.
Contrast the above to the situation prevailing in advanced countries, such as the US, where school, college or public libraries are considered temples of knowledge. Funds are lavishly invested in infrastructure, providing wellventilated and lighted rooms and halls where books, magazines and newspapers can be easily accessed. Most of these are air-conditioned, to make the time spent in browsing books as pleasant as possible. Strict silence is maintained and no eatables are allowed inside. There are a number of individual kiosks complete with table, light and computer where one can sit and study. The librarians, mostly part-time students, are trained and are helpful. Long hours of business is the norm. The college libraries are open most of the time, even on holidays, and work late hours during semester. Borrowed books, magazines and CDs can be dropped into boxes placed outside.
With the Internet culture seeping into our educational milieu, the time has come for upgrading the school and college libraries which will entice more students to make use of these. There is no substitute, as yet, to the vast print medium and the students could profit by utilising the library facilities. More funds should be allocated to equip the libraries with the latest books and magazines so that browsing of books in the library becomes a habit with at least college students, which is the norm in advanced countries. Librarians should also get a better deal compared to the present status.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it
Civilisation, so far, has not succeeded, in creating an environment suitable to mental and moral activities of mankind. The low intellectual and spiritual value of most human beings is largely due to deficiencies of their psychological atmosphere. The supremacy of matter and the dogmas of industrial religion have destroyed culture, beauty and morals. The immense spread of newspapers, cheap literature, radios and cinemas has contributed only to the degeneration of culture. Unintelligent is becoming more and more general, in spite of the course given in schools, colleges and universities. School children and students form their minds on the silly programmes of public entertainment. Social environment, instead of favouring the growth of intelligence, opposes it with all its might.
Moral sense is almost completely ignored by modern society. We have, in fact, suppressed its manifestation. All are imbued with irresponsibility. Those who discern good and evil, who are industrious and provident, remain poor and are looked upon as morose. The woman who has several children, who devotes herself to their education instead of to her own career, is considered weak-minded. If a man saves a little money for his wife and the education of his children, this money is stolen from him by enterprising financiers or taken by the Government and distributed to those who have been reduced to want by their own improvidence and the short-sightedness of manufacturers, bankers and economists. Artists and men of science supply the community with beauty, health and wealth. They live and die in poverty. Robbers enjoy prosperity and peace. Gangsters are protected by politicians and respected by judges. They are the heroes whom children admire at the cinema and imitate in their games. A rich man has every right. He may discard his aging wife, abandon his old mother to penury, rob those who have entrusted their money to him, without losing the consideration of his friends. Sexual morals have been cast aside. Psychoanalysts supervise men and women in their conjugal relations. There is no difference between wrong and right, just and unjust. No one makes any objection to their presence. Ministers have rationalised religion. They have destroyed its mystical basis. But they do not succeed in attracting modem men. In their half-empty churches, they vainly preach a weak morality. They are content with the part of policemen, helping in the interest of the wealthy to preserve the framework of present society. Or, like politicians, they flatter the appetites of the crowd.
Men are powerless against such psychological attacks. They necessarily yield to the influence of their group. If one lives in the company of fools or criminals, one becomes a fool or criminal. Isolation is the only hope of salvation. But where will the inhabitants of the new city find solitude? Said Marcus Aurelius, No retreat is more peaceful or less troubled than that encountered by man in his own soul. But we are not capable of such an effort. We cannot fight out social surroundings victoriously.
The author thinks that in the modern civilisation
a) the gangsters have grown up in large numbers
b) the social is out to fight against gangsters
c) gangsters enjoy protection and respect from those in power and the courts.
d) gangsterism has become a profession.